Lingua East

People should hear your ideas, not your accent.

Category: Uncategorized (page 2 of 3)

N in its Own Syllable

Most syllables in English are comprised of either a consonant sound plus a vowel sound, a consonant sound plus a vowel sound plus a final consonant sound, or a vowel sound alone. We don’t typically think of syllables as having a consonant alone, but there are a few instances in which this can happen with different sounds. The /n/ sound is one of those instances.

When /n/ is its own syllable, it can be denoted using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using the symbol n̩. Notice how it looks almost identical to the letter n, the only difference being a small vertical line below it. Because syllabic n (/n̩/) is an aspect of spoken language, we don’t use n̩ in the written language. Syllabic n is a sound of speech, not part of the written language.

The syllable /n̩/ is found in certain contexts in Standard American English. The main determining factor, as in much of the sounds of the language, or phonology, is the sound that comes before it. The standard /n/ sound is produced by raising the surface of the tip of the tongue to the bony shelf behind the top front teeth. There is a complete blockage of air with the tongue against the palate of the mouth. Then, the speaker produces voice. The air and sound comes out the nose. Try to prolong an /n/ sound while plugging your nose. You can’t! The air builds up until you can no longer hold it in.

The syllabic /n̩/ is produced when the sound immediately before an /n/ is produced in the same part of the mouth, that bony shelf behind the top front teeth, as /n/. Other sounds produced in this part of the mouth are /t/ and /d/, /s/ and /z/.

Words with n in its own syllable

In typical conversational speech, syllabic n appears much more frequently than when words are produced alone, with emphasis or stress. In most cases, when a word with a syllabic n is produced with emphasis, a vowel is produced before the /n/. That vowel is usually /ɪ/ or /ǝ/. Here are some words which, when produced in typical conversational speech, contain /n̩/:

Wooden

Satin

Kitten

bitten

Widen

Frighten

frightening

Fatten

fattening

Sweeten

sweetening[1]

Coordinate

Coordinator

coordinating

Wouldn’t

Shouldn’t

Didn’t

Couldn’t

Lathes are used to make wooden turnings. The word “wooden” ends in a syllabic n.

When and becomes syllabic n.

One of the most common words in the English language is and. As tends to happen with extremely common words, and undergoes a process called reduction in speech, which alters it from a weak, unstressed /ænd/ to /n̩/. Sometimes this is written simply as n’. This reduction of and occurs after sounds produced with the tongue touching the palate just behind the front teeth (/d/, /t/, /z/, and /s/). Here are some instances where and is reduced to syllabic n:

This n’ that

His n’ hers

Boys n’ girls

Then n’ there

Cats n’ dogs

Add syllabic n to your speech to sound more natural.

After a bit of practice of the words and phrases containing syllabic n in this post, try including this sound in your spoken English for more natural-sounding speech. If you have any questions, we encourage you to contact us for more information about incorporating the /n̩/ sound into your speaking habits.


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[1] The related word sweetener is not produced with /n̩/. In the spoken version of this word, the middle e disappears and the second syllable begins with n: ner.


If you’re interested in working with our licensed speech trainer in a one-on-one setting, please email contact@linguaeast.com. We currently have availability for individualized speech training sessions, and we would love to help you get the accent of your dreams!

Comunicación cultural para servicio excepcional

Las relaciones humanas son las fuentes del éxito en negocios. Estas relaciones pueden acontecer en varios lugares. Ocurren entre miembros del personal, desarrollan entre los representantes de tu compañía y los visitantes, y sirven para la espina de las referencias de clientes. La conexión humana es la parte más valiosa del negocio.

Cada faceta del negocio importa. Para tener éxito en negocios, se debe de estar esforzándose, trabajando para mejorar en cada área sin dejar ningún aspecto del negocio atrás para estancarse. Por eso, es muy importante trabajar en la comunicación. Siempre hay espacio para mejorar.

Cada faceta del negocio importa.

Considera por un momento la industria de hotelería y hospitalidad. Los empleados de un hotel interactúan con visitas de todas partes del mundo, quizá con la mayoría de visitas viniendo de uno o dos países foráneos. Los operadores trabajan muy duro por años para seleccionar la lencería y mobiliario de alta calidad para las acomodaciones, y el personal trabaja incansablemente a todas horas del día para brindar a los visitantes otros servicios que hacen una estancia en el hotel una experiencia inolvidable.

Lo que pasan por algo tantos operadores de negocios, desafortunadamente, es la importancia crucial de las habilidades de la comunicación. Al fin y al cabo, los hoteles y otros negocios de servicio dependen de la experiencia del cliente más que cualquier otra cosa. Los clientes pueden experimentar lo mejor en actividades y acomodaciones, pero si sus interacciones con el personal son menos que estelar, es mucho menos probable que querrán referir a otros al hotel.

Las experiencias negativas son memorables.

Las experiencias negativas son memorables. Los estudios demuestran que nos acordamos de las experiencias negativas más que las positivas, y con más detalle[1]. De hecho, es más probable que los visitantes hablaran con sus amigos de sus interacciones negativas con el personal que la calidad excelente de las toallas de algodón egipcio o los controles de temperatura LED en el baño. Tenemos que trabajar más para brindar experiencias positivas.

Particularmente cuando interactuamos con los visitantes de otras culturas, muchas veces, damos con expectativas culturales de que no sabemos. Estas expectativas culturales pueden ocurrir en las interacciones menos probables y más mundanas, como un mesero checando en los clientes en el restaurante. Cuando se violan estas expectativas, la gente se nota, y se acuerdan.

La mejor manera para prevenir que los individuos de tu organización violan a las expectativas de los clientes por accidente es educarte en la comunicación cultural. Justamente como haces un esfuerzo para informarte de las noticias de la industria por publicaciones, networking, y trabajando con consultantes, si estas en una industria de servicio, te conviene trabajar en la comunicación Especialmente si provees servicios para visitantes internacionales, la comunicación es un área que no quieres dejar atrás para estancarse.

Lo que importa más en las industrias de servicio son las conexiones forjadas entre personas.

Lo que importa más en las industrias de servicio son las conexiones forjadas entre personas. Si lees cualquier libro de negocio veras varios ejemplos de compañías que venden su producto a precios más altos que la competencia, pero aun experimentan éxito por su dedicación al servicio al cliente. Las compañías pueden perseverar por tiempos difíciles y rendir ganancias, ano tras ano, no son las que basan sus operaciones en principios económicos y mañosos, con empleados que cumplen con sus deberes, nada más nada menos. Las compañías que suelen encontrar longevidad verdadera y éxito son las que ponen el enfoque en personas – eso refiere a los clientes que sirven y los individuos que emplean.

Para brindar valor a los clientes y servicio al cliente excelente a tus visitantes, deberías de invertir en los empleados. Parte de su entrenamiento en las operaciones y cultura de la compañía debería de incluir una sección en las habilidades de la comunicación. Si sirves a clientes internacionales, entrenamiento especial en la comunicación cultural puede distinguir a tu organización de la competencia.

Todos queremos ser mejor en lo que hacemos. El entrenamiento en la comunicación cultural puede ser de mucho valor para tu organización. Contrata un consultante para entrenar a tu personal solo una vez y veras mejoramiento en el servicio al cliente que rápidamente recuperan el costo del consultante. Las compañías de todos tamaños cosechan los premios del entrenamiento de la comunicación por servicio al cliente que es mejor y más sensible.

Si tienes interés en aprender más sobre cómo puedes aumentar ganancias con entrenamiento de la comunicación cultural para tus empleados, contáctanos. Podemos proveer servicios de consultante para exclusivas organizaciones buscando crecer relaciones con los clientes por comunicación transcultural eficaz. Ayuda a tu compañía ganar reconocimiento por la conexión humana.

Brindamos servicios de consultoría a organizaciones selectas que buscan crear relaciones con los clientes a través de una comunicación intercultural efectiva.

[1] Mickley, K. & Kensinger, E. (2008). Emotional valence influences the neural correlates associated with remembering and knowing. Cognitive, Affective, and behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 143-152.

Mickley Steinmetz, K. & Kensinger, E. (2009). The effects of valence and arousal on the neural activity leading to subsequent memory. Psychopsyiology, 46, 1190-1199.


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A Case for Reading

In the past year or so, less than half of all Americans have read any kind of literature – that includes other forms of works of fiction, such as books, poems, plays, and short stories. And that statistic isn’t just reserved to printed pages; it includes literature published online, too. For many, reading has only ever been something assigned by a teacher, a thing you had to do in order to get a good grade. I am here to argue that reading is a worthwhile pursuit, one that can enrich your life in unimaginable ways.

Reading relies on the sense of vision (for the blind, this is the sense of hearing or the sense of touch). Every day we read on our devices as we respond to emails and tend to social media accounts, but the rate we’re reading literature is at an all-time low. So why should you look at a book?

If you read, you’ll be smarter.

Reading is a form of receptive language. Consider language as the exchange of information. When you read, you’re taking in information that did not come from you, but rather, from the original author. That means that when you crack open a book and read, you’re taking in:

  • new ideas
  • unexamined viewpoints
  • facts you did not know before
  • someone else’s perspective

I think you’ll agree with me that those are all things that can help you cultivate your intelligence and understand the world better. Furthermore, the more you familiarize yourself with particular authors, the better able you will be to understand others when they refer to works or situations as Orwellian or Machiavellian, Dickensian or Kafkaesque.

Improve your grammar.

When we read most literature, especially if it is in our second language, we are exposing our brains to language that is more complex than what we produce in everyday speech. Repeated exposure to more complex language can improve your language abilities in a natural way. (It’s how children learn to communicate – taking in the more advanced language of those around them.) If you have trouble with coming up with the right word order in embedded clauses and other complex grammar structures, seeing several different examples of the structure in writing can make learning these new forms easy – and interesting.

Grow your vocabulary.

Reading improves your vocabulary. When you come across an unfamiliar word in a book, the other words on the page give you enough context to figure out what the word means. Unlike in a conversation, reading allows you to look ahead at the rest of the sentence, so you can then create an understanding of the word’s meaning in your head. This is a more natural way to learn new words. The neural connections between a word you learn from your reading material and related words (either because they have similar meanings or because they sound alike) are stronger compared to when you try to learn a word by memorizing its meaning.

Relate to others

Reading on a regular basis enhances empathy, the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. Studies have shown that people who read fiction are more empathetic than people who read nonfiction, or don’t read at all. Being able to relate to others is a building block for a good social life and, therefore, better overall quality of life.

Reading is a unique form of communication in that written material, for the most part, has been edited. It conveys ideas in a way that the writer wants them to be conveyed. Before its release, written material has been reflected upon, rewritten multiple times, and edited with a reader like you in mind. The best ideas come in written form, and they are waiting for you to explore them.

These benefits all come together to help you out with communication in general. When you have a great vocabulary and a solid grasp of complex grammatical structures, you are better able to engage in wordplay such as puns and other jokes. An ability to break the ice will make it much easier to let them hear your ideas.

Bromeando en un Segundo lenguaje

Estuve recientemente en México, sentada en una mesa llena de comida y rodeada por amigos. Todos se disfrutaban, comiendo, platicando, y riendo. El ambiente era jovial. Yo hablo español como segundo lenguaje, y como ya conocía a la mayoría de las personas ahí por casi una década, me sentía cómoda. Luego, conté un chiste.

Silencio.

Luego entró en mi mente la comprensión decepcionada que nadie pensaba que era chistosa mi broma – o hasta entendible, y tuve que actuar rápido para aclarar la confusión que se mostró en las caras de mis amigos.

 

Si eres como yo, entiendes el valor de una buena risa. La risa puede reducir el estrés, mejorar la salud, y nos ayuda a conectar y unirse con otros. Hay muchas maneras de hacer reír la gente; una de mis favoritas es con el uso de lenguaje y palabras.

Hay buenos chistes y hay malos chistes, y luego hay los chistes muy malos.

Algunas personas suelen tener mejor capacidad de hacer que los demás se ríen. Hasta si eres bueno/a con los chistes, si estás usando un segundo lenguaje e interactuando con gente de una cultura que no te crio, hay una gran posibilidad que de vez en cuando harás una broma que la gente no pensara chistosa.

¿Por que fallan chistes en el segundo lenguaje?

Gente de culturas diferentes suelen encontrar cosas diferentes como chistosas… o no.

La broma ofende.

Dependiendo de tus raíces y las de tu audiencia, una broma que es super cómica en tu cultura podría o valer risa, o en los peores de los casos, ofender a las personas de otra cultura. Las bromas ofensivas típicamente ofenden con o su contenido, la relación entre quien cuenta el chiste y quien lo oiga, o los dos. Las diferencias en lo que si es y no se considera cómico entre las culturas del este y las del oeste han sido explorado y descrito. Por un enfoque académico al tema, haz clic aquí.

Elocución mediocre.

Si no hay problema con el contenido de tu chiste, puede ser que el problema tiene algo que ver con como cuentas el chiste. Todos hemos sido testigos a alguien contando mal una broma. O se revela la línea clave del chiste demasiado pronto o la persona tropieza por la introducción, olvidando información crucial. Esta parte de contar un chiste es universal. Cuando se bromea en un segundo lenguaje, definitivamente hay que usar el vocabulario correcto y pronunciarlo suficientemente bien para que te entiendan.

Especialmente con los chistes de una línea, los zingers, cuando se bromea entre culturas, a veces la gente usa maneras de comunicar que no sirven igual en la segunda cultura. Los británicos, por ejemplo, son conocidos por su uso del sarcasmo.

No se traduce.

Muchas bromas dependen de un contexto compartido. Si tu no conoces la información del fondo, puede ser que serás el único no riéndose al final. Es bastante común en una situación de segundo lenguaje.

Si tu audiencia no conoce el contexto de tu broma, no será chistosa. En una situación de Segundo lenguaje, muchas referencias a la cultura contemporánea no son compartidos. Por eso, muchas personas en los EEUU estarán confusas cuando evocas la línea de Eugenio Derbez en La Familia P. Luche y empiezas a decirle a tu amiga Bibi, preguntándole por qué no es una niña normal.

Que hacer cuando tu chiste ha fracasado.

En la conversación, cuando contamos mal un chiste, nos quedan varias opciones.

Seguir.

Especialmente si es rápida la conversación, a veces solo ignorar la broma mala y seguir con el dialogo es lo mejor que se puede hacer. Bromas ligeras no contienen información importante a la conversación (aunque pueden), sino sirven para alegrar el ánimo.

Explicar el chiste.

Culturas diferentes se ríen a cosas diferentes, y puede ser el caso que las otras personas si entendieron el chiste, solo que no era chistoso para ellos. Si tienes la oportunidad de explicar que querías decir con la broma y lo que se le hizo chistosa, hacer eso puede ayudar a tu audiencia entender major tu manera de pensar, iluminando las diferencias culturales del humor.

Reconocer la broma como fracaso.

De vez en cuando, para mantenernos humildes, es importante reírnos. Decir algo tan sencillo como, “Eso sonó mejor en mi cabeza,” o “órale, yo esperaba que ibas a reírte de eso” puede comunicar a los demás que hiciste una broma y no notaron.

Ni importa lo que hagas, hazlo rápido.

A menos que te piden una explicación detallada, es mejor recuperarte rápido de una broma fracasada, para que siga la conversación.

 

En el caso de mi chiste fracasado, en el espacio de la pausa de confusión, no perdí tiempo de explicar mi uso del sarcasmo y de nuevo, como si nunca hubiera ninguna pausa, la conversación seguía.

Si tienes interés en trabajar en tu comunicación en inglés como Segundo lenguaje, hablémonos. Hacer cambios positivos en el poder usar ingles con eficaz actualmente no es tan difícil, solo toma un poco de ayuda.

Optimizing Your Space for Sound

When you’re trying to build apartments where neighbors can have privacy from one another, classrooms where the instructor can be heard without taxing their voice, or a sound booth for the recording of an audiobook, you take into account the materials and design that will treat sound and noise for your needs. The goal is better sound and less noise.

Sound travels in waves that emit from a source. How far the waves travel depends on their intensity starting out and what they bump into. If the sound waves are in the air, then they’ll travel freely. If they hit water, they won’t go much further, because the water absorbs the sound wave.

Sound waves bounce off of some surfaces, particularly those that are hard, smooth, and made of a dense material. These include things like marble, polished stone, and tiles; the kind of surfaces you find in the lobbies of big government buildings and museums. Places like these are great spots for creating echoes, but if there are a lot of people around, and everyone is talking, it can get very noisy. Situations like these can make it extremely difficult to understand the person you’re having a conversation with, for two reasons: 1. because your ears and brain are getting multiple bouncing sound waves at once, and 2. speech is a series of different sounds, produced in rapid succession.

Given what we know about how sound moves, there are several things we can do to optimize the environment for speech:

·       Builders can select construction materials that won’t help sound continue to travel.

·       Use carpeting and rugs to dampen sound waves in the environment

·       Hang acoustic panels or cloth decorations (such as tapestries) on the walls to attenuate sound and reduce echo

·       Set up furniture in reasonable proximity for a conversation. It is a lot harder to have a conversation across a room than when you are sitting next to the person.

·       Earthen embankments and other strategic landscaping can reduce the sounds from traffic and other outside sources that may enter a room.

The next time you’re having difficulty hearing someone, take a look around and take a moment to identify potential reasons. Then, if there is something you can do about your situation to improve the acoustics, take action. Once you can hear the other person and they can hear you, let them hear your ideas.

Practicing Speech with Written Materials

Reading more is always a good thing, but such is not necessarily the case when it comes to speech practice.

At Lingua East, the practice materials for speech training are in written form. That is because it is easier to mimic something you hear than to produce it without a model. If the practice materials were presented in audio form, the person doing the speech practice would hear a model. This isn’t mimicry training, it’s speech training.

The production of spontaneous speech relies on the deeply ingrained motor patterns associated with language. Spontaneous speech is the speech that we normally produce: conversational speech, everyday speech, speech that is not rehearsed, repeated, or read. In the mind, this comes from a deep place: a place of original thought.

Spontaneous speech is produced in a neural circuit that is distinct from the combination of neurons in the brain that we use to repeat something we’ve just heard, or to read words we see. When we repeat or read out loud, it’s almost as if our mouths are providing a mirror image of the words that went in our ears or eyes, respectively. Thus, when we repeat what we’ve heard or seen somewhere else, we are not necessarily processing the ideas at a deeper level, we’re just mimicking someone else’s message.

The goal in speech training is to connect the motor patterns we use for clear pronunciation and expression of language with the neural circuitry that produces speech from that deep place in the mind where our thoughts come from. Therefore, although written materials and audio recordings may be used for speech practice, quality practice is not simple reading or repeating.

Quality practice involves a pause for your brain to absorb what you see written on the paper, enough time for you to ensure the correct word or sentence is in your working memory, then producing the word or sentence without looking at its written form. Doing this over and over and over again, you may find you memorize the words or sentences on your practice list, and perhaps you even picture them in your head when you’re practicing.

Being able to read a language and being able to speak a language are two different things. Reading requires the ability to process visual information about the language for comprehension, and speaking requires the ability to communicate your ideas in the language spontaneously, from that deep part of your mind where thinking happens.

When practicing your speech in a second language using written materials, be sure you are not just reading the words and sentences. Read a practice sentence to yourself, and think about it. Then, without looking at the paper or screen, produce the sentence using your best effort to get the speech sounds right. Practicing this way consistently, over time, you will find that your spontaneous speech changes, and you have an easier time producing clear sounds, words, and sentences.

When it comes to reading in a second language, read books. Don’t read your practice words, produce them. Don’t skim your practice sentences, say them. When it comes time to practice your speech sounds in conversation, you’ll have an easier time.


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Avoid Misunderstandings for Clear Communication

Understanding is shared meaning. Misunderstanding results from interaction between individuals with differing worldviews. A worldview is a person’s perspective, based on their experience in the world: the things they see, hear, and otherwise take in from their senses, and their subsequent processing of associations and relationships between those things which they experience. With so many different ways of thinking and so many different ways to communicate and interpret an idea, miscommunication happens frequently, threatening to derail a conversation and obliterate mutual understanding. Luckily, there are things anyone can do to better understand how and why misunderstanding occurs, and to work toward a common meaning.

Identify misunderstandings early, before they go too far.

The further out in an interaction a misunderstanding goes, the greater affect it can have on the result of the situation. Once the understanding of information in a conversation is no longer shared, misunderstanding begins. Neither person in the conversation may know that the misunderstanding has occurred, and the more the conversation moves ahead, the wider the gap grows between the understanding of the two people.

When identifying misunderstandings, time is of the essence. The goal is to prevent that gap in understanding from growing too wide. The wider it grows, the more difficult it will be to bridge. Therefore, the sooner you can identify that a miscommunication has occurred, the better.

Work quickly to clear up any misunderstanding.

If you suddenly realize your understanding of the conversation is different from that of the other person, stop what you’re doing, and start asking questions. Look backwards in the conversation and try to figure out where the miscommunication occurred so you and your conversation partner can return to the same page.

When clearing up a misunderstanding, you’re striving to restore the shared meaning. Once you and your conversation partner return to a mutual understanding, the conversation can move forward.

Focus on the information that has been communicated.

Think about the brain like a computer, taking in and spitting out bits of information. Misunderstandings and glitches occur frequently, because there are a lot of different operating systems in the world, and compatibility issues abound. Likewise, different individuals have different brains that operate differently from yours.

There are a few different types of information that are helpful for a shared understanding and clear communication. This information might be considered background information, but it is crucial to guide your listener toward sharing your views on the subject at hand. This information is easy to provide and without it, your listener could be in the dark.

The right information. In any conversation, there are certain expectations. The person doing the talking expects the listener to understand the message, taking in new information and incorporating it with what they already know. That being said, when you’re doing the talking, your expectations of the listener should be based on what you know that they know, and not on what you think they know.

All relevant information should be presented in order for your listener to get the full picture. Try not to confuse the situation by distracting your listeners with extra, unneeded information.

Information related to time. When discussing actions and events, orient the listener to when the event occurred or may occur. Use dates and times, with the most specific language possible. If something must happen by the end of the work week, saying this Friday by 5pm is more specific than saying by the end of the week. Be clear to your listener about when the event:

  • Took place (perfect),
  • Has taken place (past perfect),
  • Was taking place (imperfect),
  • Would have taken place (conditional perfect),
  • Takes place (present),
  • Is taking place (present progressive),
  • Will take place (future),
  • Will have taken place (future perfect), or
  • Would take place (future conditional)

As you can see in the list above, the verb tense is the best indicator of the when. If you’re asking for something, be clear about the deadline. When you talk about events or things that happened, choose your verb tense carefully. Different situations call for different levels of specificity other than the general past-present-future tenses.

Information about the people involved. This could be as specific as individuals mentioned by name and groups that people are in, or as vague as a number or other measurement of people (i.e., one, a couple, a few, several, many, etc.). It is never safe to assume that everyone in the room knows what you know, so sometimes, stating what you believe to be the obvious may actually be quite informative to others. The benefit of being clear about who is involved and who knows what is that if at some point in the future your listener needs to communicate information to others, they’ll have a better grasp on knowing what the other person knows.

Information about the direction of the action. Every action has a direction. When a report is filed, there is a person doing the filing, and the report is the object of that action. When a phone call is made, there is a person making the call and a person receiving the call. This information ties in with the people involved. When two people or groups of people are involved in the action, like in a phone call, then things can get confusing. Be clear about who initiates the action and who else is involved, and make sure those people are aware of their roles.

There is a purpose behind every communication. If you can make your listener understand why you are talking with them then they can be ready to understand the content of your message. Many people, especially those in positions of power, fall into the habit of explaining what they want others to do, without explaining the why behind them. If you are on the receiving end of these orders, it can get tiresome rather quickly.  When your listener understands the reason behind your conversation – that is, why you are asking them to do something, or what you are hoping to get out of the conversation and how it relates to them – then they feel united with you by a common purpose. This can increase their motivation to work with you and when that happens, things get done.

Like many other mishaps in life, the best way to prevent miscommunication is to be aware of the potential for it to happen, and to prepared when it does occur. Learn to troubleshoot misunderstandings the moment they happen by analyzing the information presented and thinking about who knows what, so you can provide the missing information, bridge the gap in understanding, and clarify the confusion. The result is better communication, and everyone is on the same page.

PRONUNCIATION GUIDE – US Immigration Forms

The immigration process for entering the United States can be complicated. Knowing what form to file and when to file it can mean the difference between a case being accepted or rejected. Practice your pronunciation of the names of US immigration forms to smooth some of the bumps on the journey to citizenship.

AR-11

eɪ ar  ǝ vɪn

Change of Address

ʧeɪn ʤ   ʌv   æ drɛs

DS-3025

di ɛs ðɝ di twǝ ni faɪv

Vaccination Documentation Worksheet

væk ʃǝn   dɔ kju mɛn teɪ ʃǝn   wɝk ʃit

DS-160

di ɛs  wan sɪks ti

Online Nonimmigrant Visa Application

an laɪn   nan ɪ mɪ grɪnt   vi za   æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn

G-28

ʤi twǝ ni eit

Notice of Entry of Appearance as Attorney or Representative

no dɪs   ʌv   ɛn tri   ʌv   ʌ piɚ ɪns   æz   ǝ ni   oɚ   rɛp rɪ zen tʌ tɪv

G-325

ʤi θri twǝ ni faɪv

Biographic Information

baɪ ɔ græ fɪk   ɪn fɚ ʃǝn

G-639

ʤi sɪks  ðɝ di naɪn

Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Request

fri dʌm   ʌv   ɪn fɚ ʃǝn praɪ vǝ si   ækt   rǝ kwɛst

G-845

ʤi eit foɚ di faɪv

Verification Request

veɚ ɪ fɪ keɪ ʃǝn   rǝ kwɛst

G-884

ʤi eit eɪ di foɚ

Return of Original Documents

tɝn   ʌv   ǝ ʤɪ nǝl   kju mɛnts

G-1020

ʤi tɛn twǝ ni

H-1B Specialty Occupation Data Collection

eɪʧ wan bi   spe ʃʌl ti   a kju ʃǝn   deɪ dǝ   kǝ lek ʃǝn

G-1041

ʤi tɛn foɚ di wan

Genealogy Index Search Request

ʤi ni a lǝ ʤi   ɪn dɛk sɝʧ   rǝ kwɛst

G-1041A

ʤi tɛn foɚ di wan eɪ

Genealogy Records Request

ʤi ni a lǝ ʤi   kɚdz   rǝ kwɛst

G-1145

ʤi ǝ vɪn foɚ di faɪv

E-Notification of Application/Petition Acceptance

i   no dɪ fɪ keɪ ʃǝn   ʌv   æ plɪ ʃǝn pǝ ʃǝn   æk sɛp tǝns

I-9

naɪn

Employment Eligibility Verification

em ploi mɪnt   ɛl ɪ ʤǝ bɪl ɪ di   veɚ ɪ fɪ ʃǝn

I-90

naɪn di

Application to Replace a Green Card

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   tu   ri pleɪs   ǝ   grin   kard

I-94

naɪn di foɚ

Arrival-Departure Record

ǝ raɪ vʌl   dǝ par ʧɚ   kɚd

I-94W

naɪn di foɚ bǝl ju

Nonimmigrant Visa Waiver Arrival-Departure Record

nan ɪ mɪ grɪnt   vi za   weɪ vɚ   ǝ raɪ vʌl   dǝ par ʧɚ   kɚd

I-102

wan oʊ tu

Application for Replacement/Initial Nonimmigrant Arrival-Departure Document

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   rǝ pleɪs mɪnt ɪ ʃʌl   nan ɪ mɪ grɪnt   ǝ raɪ vʌl   dǝ par ʧɚ   kju mɛnt

I-129F

wan twǝ ni naɪn ɛf

Petition for Alien Fiance

ʃǝn   fɝ   e li ǝn   fi an seɪ

I-130

wan ðɝ di

Petition for Alien Relative

ʃǝn   fɝ   e li ǝn   lʌ tɪv

I-131

wan ðɝ di wan

Application for Travel Document

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   træ vǝl da kju mɪnt

I-134

wan ðɝ di foɚ

Affidavit of Support

æ fɪ deɪ vɪt   ʌv   sʌ poɚt

I-140

wan foɚ di

Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker

ɪ mɪ grɪnt   pǝ ʃǝn   fɝ   eɪ li ǝn

I-175

wan vɪn di faɪv

Application for Nonresident Alien’s Canadian Border Crossing Card

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   nan zɪ dɪn teɪ li ǝnz   kǝ neɪ di ǝn   boɚ dɚ   kra sɪŋ   kard

I-190

wan naɪn di

Application for Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   nan rɛ zɪ dɪn teɪ li ǝn   mɛk sɪ kǝn   boɚ dɚ   kra sɪŋ   kard

I-191

wan naɪn di wan

Application for Permission to Return to an Unrelinquished Domicile

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   pɚ ʃǝn   tǝ   ri tɝn tu ǝn   ʌnlɪŋ kwɪʃt   dasaɪ ǝl

I-192

wan naɪn di tu

Application for Advance Permission to Enter as Nonimmigrant

æ plɪ keɪ ʃʌn   fɝ   ǝd væns   pɚ ʃʌn   tu   ɛn tɚ   æz   nan ɪ mɪ grɪnt

I-193

wan naɪn di θri

Application for Waiver of Passport and/or Visa

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   weɪ vɚ   ʌv   pæs poɚd   ænd   oɚ   vi za

I-212

tu twelv

Application for Permission to Reapply for Admission Into the United States after Deportation or Removal

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   pɚ ʃʌn   tu   ri ǝ plaɪ   fɝ   ʌd ʃʌn   ɪn tu   ðǝ   ju naɪ dɪd   steɪts   æf tɚ   di poɚ teɪ ʃǝn   oɚ   ri mu vǝl

I-290B

tu naɪn di bi

Notice to Appeal to the Administrative Appeals Unit

no dɪs   tu   ǝ pil   tu   ði   ǝd streɪ dɪv   ǝ pilz   ju nɪt

I-360

θri sɪks ti

Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant

ʃǝn   fɝ   a mɝ ʤǝn,   doʊ (ɚ),   oɚ   spɛ ʃǝl   ɪm ɪ grɪnt

I-361

θri sɪks ti wan

Affidavit of Financial Support and Intent to Petition for Legal Custody

æ fɪ deɪ vɪt   ʌv   faɪ nen ʧǝl   sǝ poɚt   æn   dɪn tenʔ   tǝ   pǝ ʃǝn   foɚ   li gᴧl   kᴧs tǝ di

I-407

foɚ vɪn

Abandonment of Lawful Permanent Resident Status – Surrender Green Card

ǝ bæn dǝn mɪn   tᴧf   laʊ fǝl   mǝ nɪnt   zɪ dɪnt   stæ  dɪs   sɚ ɛn dɚ   grin   kard

I-468

foɚ sɪks ti eɪt

Medical Examination and Immigration Interview

dɪ kǝl   ek zem ɪ neɪ ʃǝn   æn dɪm ɪ greɪ ʃǝn   ɪn tɚ vju

I-485

foɚ eɪ di faɪv

Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   tu   ʤɪ stɚ   mǝ nɪnt   zɪ dens   oɚ   ǝ ʤᴧst   stæ dɪs

I-508

faɪv eit

Waiver of Rights, Privileges, Exemptions and Immunities

weɪ vɚ   ǝf   raɪts   prɪ vlǝ ʤǝz   ɛk zemp ʃǝnz   ænd   ɪ mju nɪ tiz

I-526

faɪv twǝ ni sɪks

Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur

ɪm ɪ grɪnt   pǝ ʃʌn   baɪ   e li ǝn   an trǝ prǝ nu ɚ

 
I-538

faɪv ðɝ di eɪt

Certification by Designated School Official

sɝ tɪ fǝ keɪ ʃǝn   baɪ   zɪg neɪ tɪd   skul   ǝ ʃǝl

 
I-539

faɪv ðɝ di naɪn

Application to Extend/Change Nonimmigrant Status

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   tu   ɛk stend ʧeɪnʤ   nan ɪgrɪnt   stæ dɪs

I-551

faɪv fɪf ti wan

Green Card

grin kard

I-566

faɪv sɪks ti sɪks

Interagency Record of Individual Requesting Change/Adjustment to or from A or G Status

ɪn tɚ ʤɛn ci   kɚ  dǝ vɪn ʤu ǝl   rɪ kwɛs tɪŋ   ʧeɪnʤ   ǝ ʤǝst mɪnt   tu   oɚ   frᴧm      oɚ   ʤi   stæ dɪs

I-589

faɪv eɪ di naɪn

Application for Asylum

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   ǝ saɪ lǝm

I-600

sɪks hʌn drɪd

Petition to Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative

ʃǝn   tu   klæ sɪ faɪ   oɚ fɪn   æ zǝn   ɪ mi di et   rɛl ǝ tɪv

I-600A

sɪks hʌn drɪd eɪ

Application for Advance Processing of Orphan Petition

æ plɪ keɪ ʃʌn   fɝ   æd væns   prɔ sɛ sɪŋ   ᴧv fɪn   pǝ ʃʌn

I-601

sɪkswan

Application for Waiver of Grounds of Inadmissibility

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   weɪ vɚ   ᴧf   graʊndz   ᴧ vɪn ǝd mɪs ǝ bɪl ǝ ti

I-602

sɪkstu

Application By Refugee For Waiver of Grounds of Excludability

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   baɪ   fju ʤi   fɚ   weɪ vɚ   ᴧv  graʊndz   ᴧ vɪks klu lǝ di

I-612

sɪks twelv

Application for Waiver of the Foreign Residence Requirement

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   weɪ vɚ   ᴧv   ði   foɚ ɪn   zɪ dǝns   rɪ kwaɪ ɚ mɪnt

I-643

sɪks foɚ di θri

Health and Human Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status

hɛlθ   ænd   hju mǝn   sɝ vɪ sɪz   stǝ stǝ kǝl   deɪ dǝ   foɚ   rɛ fju ʤi   ǝ seɪ li   ǝ ʤᴧ stɪŋ stæ dɪs

I-687

sɪks eɪ divɪn

Application for Status as a Temporary Resident Under Section 245A of the Immigration and Nationality Act

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   stæ dɪs   æ zǝ   tɛme ri   zǝ dɪn tᴧn dɚ   sɛk ʃǝn   tu  foɚ di  feɪv  eɪ   ᴧv   ði   ɪm ɪ greɪ ʃǝn   ænd   næ ʃǝ næl ɪ di   ækt

I-688

sɪks eɪ di eɪt

Employment Authorization Document

em ploi mɪn   θɚ ɪ zeɪ ʃǝn   kju mɛnt

I-690

sɪks naɪn di

Application for Waiver of Excludability

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   weɪ vɚ   ᴧv   ɛks klu lǝ ti

 
I-693

sɪks naɪn di θri

Civil Surgeon’s Medical Report

vǝl   ʤǝnz   dɪ kǝl   rǝ poɚt

I-694

sɪks naɪn di foɚ

Notice of Appeal of Decision

no dɪs   ᴧv   ǝ pil   ᴧv   æk ʃǝn

 
I-698

sɪks naɪn di eɪt

Application to Adjust Status From Temporary to Permanent Resident

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   tu   ǝ ʤᴧst   stæ dɪs   frᴧm   tɛme ri   tu   mǝ nɪnt   zǝ dɪnt

I-730

aɪ sɛ vɪn ðɝ di

Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition

fju ʤi   ǝ seɪ li   rɛl ǝ tɪv   pǝ ʃǝn

I-751

vɪn fɪf di wan

Petition to Remove Conditions

ʃǝn   tu   rǝ muv   kᴧn ʃǝnz

I-765

vɪn sɪks ti faɪv

Application for Employment Authorization Document

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   em ploi mɪn   tɔ θɚ ɪ zeɪ ʃǝn  kju mɛnt

I-797

vɪn naɪn di vɪn

Notice of Action

no dɪs   ᴧv   æk ʃǝn

I-800

aɪ eɪt han drɪd

Petition to Classify Convention Adoptee as an Immediate Relative

ʃǝn   tu   klæ sǝ faɪ   kᴧn vɛn ʧǝn   ǝ dap ti   æz   ǝn   ɪ mi di ǝt   rɛl ǝ tɪv

I-800A

aɪ eɪt han drɪd

Application for Determination of Suitability to Adopt a Child from a Convention Country

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   dɪ tɝ mɪ neɪ ʃǝn   ᴧf   su dǝ bɪl ǝ di   tu   ǝ dapt   ǝ   ʧaɪ ǝld   frᴧm   ǝ   kᴧn vɛn ʧǝn   kᴧn tri

I-817

aɪ eɪt vɪn tin

Application for Family Unity Benefits

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   fæm li   ju nɪ di   nɪ fɪts

I-821

eɪt twǝ ni wan

Application for Temporary Protected Status

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   tɛm pɚ e ri   prǝ tɛk tɪd stæ dɪs

I-824

eɪt twǝ ni foɚ

Application for Action on an Approved Application or Petition

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   æk ʃʌn   an   ǝn   ǝ pruv   dæpkeɪ ʃʌn   oɚ   pǝ ʃǝn

I-829

eɪt twǝ ni naɪn

Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions

ʃǝn   baɪ   an trǝ prǝ nu ɚ   tu   ri muv   kʌn ʃʌnz

I-854

eɪt fɪf ti foɚ

Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record

ɪn ʤǝn si   e li ǝn   wɪt nɪs   ænd   ɪn foɚ mǝnt   kɚd

I-864

eɪt sɪks ti foɚ

Affidavit of Support

æ fɪ deɪ vɪt   ʌv   sʌ poɚt

I-864EZ

eɪt sɪks ti foɚ i zi

Affidavit of Support

æ fɪ deɪ vɪt   ʌv   sʌ poɚt

I-865

eɪt sɪks ti faɪv

Sponsor’s Notice of Change of Address

span sɚz   no dɪs   ᴧv   ʧeɪnʤ   ᴧv   æ drɛs

I-905

naɪnfaɪv

Application for Authorization to Issue Certification for Health Care Workers

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   ɔ θɚ ɪ zeɪ ʃǝn   tu   ɪʃ ju   tɪ fɪ keɪʃǝn   fɝ   hɛlθ   keɚ   kɚz

I-907

naɪn vɪn

Request for Premium Processing Service

kwɛst   fɝ   pri mi ǝm   prɔ sɛ sɪŋ   vɪs

I-914

naɪn foɚ tin

Application for T Nonimmigrant Status

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   ti   na mɪ grɪnt   stæ dɪs

I-918

naɪn tin

Petition for U Nonimmigrant Status

ʃǝn   fɝ   ju   na mɪ grɪnt   stæ dɪs

N-4

en foɚ

Monthly Report Naturalization Papers

mᴧnθ li   rǝ poɚt   næ trǝ lɪ zeɪ ʃǝn   peɪ pɚz

N-300

en θri hʌn drɪd

Application to File Declaration of Intention

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   tu   faɪ ǝl   dɛk lɝ ʃǝn   ᴧv   ɪn tɛnt

N-336

en θri ðɝ di sɪks

Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings Under Section 336 of the INA

kwɛst   foɚ   hiɚr ɪŋ   an   ǝ   dǝ ʣǝn   ɪn   næt rǝ lɪ zeɪ ʃǝn   prǝ si dɪŋz   ᴧn dɚ   sɛk ʃǝn   θri θɝ di sɪks   ᴧv   ði   en

N-400

en foɚ hʌn drɪd

Application for Naturalization

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   trǝ lɪ zeɪ ʃǝn

N-426

en foɚ twa ni sɪks

Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service

kwɛst   foɚ   sɝ tɪ fǝ keɪ ʃǝn   ǝf   mɪl ɪ te ri   oɚ   neɪ vǝl   vɪs

N-470

en foɚ vɪn di

Application to Preserve Residence for Naturalization Purposes

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   tu   prǝ zɝv   zǝ dɪns   foɚ   næt rǝ lɪ zeɪ ʃǝn   ǝ sɪz

N-565

en faɪv sɪks ti faɪv

Application for Replacement Naturalization Citizenship Document

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   rɪ pleɪs mǝnt   næ trǝ lɪ zeɪ ʃǝn   dɪ sǝn ʃɪp   kju mɛnt

N-600

en sɪks hʌn drɪd

Application for Certificate of Citizenship

æ plɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   sɝ fɪ kɪt   sɛn ʃɪp

N-644

en sɪks foɚ ti foɚ

Application for Posthumous Citizenship

æ plɪ keɪ ʃǝn   fɝ   pɔs tju mǝ sɛn ʃɪp

N-648

en sɪks foɚ ti eɪt

Medical Certification for Disability Exceptions

dɪ kǝl   sɝ tɪ fǝ keɪ ʃǝn   foɚ   dɪ sǝ lǝ di   ɛk sɛp ʃǝnz

WR-702, WR-703

bǝl ju ar sɛ vɪn oʊ tu

bǝl ju ar vɪn oʊ θri

Data Collection for Alien Documentation, Identification and Telecommunications Systems

deɪ dǝ   kǝ lɛk ʃǝn   foɚ   eɪ li ǝn   dɔ kju mɛn teɪ ʃǝn   eɪ dɛn tɪ fǝ keɪ ʃǝn   ænd   lǝ kǝ mjukeɪ ʃǝn   sɪs tǝmz

Use this playlist to hear the pronunciation of the form you need to talk about.

Rules for Conversation: Taking Turns & Interrupting

In the latest uprising of people fighting for women’s rights, there are calls for equal pay in the workplace, a stop to gender-based harassment, and interestingly, a call for a change in communication behaviors including conversational turn taking.

In a conversation, each speaker has a turn. When there are more than a couple people involved, the ratio of turns to talk becomes less distributed. However, just as in a card game, each person has roughly the same ratio of turns to talk.

There is strong evidence for different degrees of uncivil speech behaviors. This is easily available from academic, journalistic, and anecdotal resources. You probably see it in conversations with the people among you. Maybe you have noticed you are an interrupter.

 

Unless the situation is serious, the consequences dire, don’t interrupt. When you interrupt, despite how great your point may be, it makes you look like a jerk. Your point can wait until it is your turn to speak, and if you listen, your ideas may tie in nicely with the point your conversational partner is making.

If you must interrupt, admit that you’re interrupting (either by apologizing or acknowledging). “Sorry to interrupt, but…” or “I’m going to have to interrupt you…”

Otherwise, wait your turn.

While you wait, listen to what the person is saying, while keeping in mind the comment you wanted to respond to. Here are some phrases that you can use to make a smooth transition between conversation turns:

To refer to something mentioned previously

Going back to what you said about [topic]…

You said [phrase or sentence]…

I want to return to [previous topic]

 When it comes to rules for behavior in conversations (i.e. turn-taking and eye contact), like other rules, you should follow them. Or break them in a way that you can own up to, hopefully with good intentions. The key here is being aware of your behavior in a conversation and its effect on others. In a conversation, it’s not worth it to interrupt. When someone is interrupted, they can become upset, feeling that their voice is not heard. If they’re upset, they’re likely to pay less attention to what the interrupter is saying. If we can all practice a little patience and use the right words to orient our listeners to the points we want to address, we can have successful conversations without upsetting the people we speak with.

Cambiar un acento es difícil (pero no es imposible)

Es muy fácil para los niños aprender idiomas – el idioma natal y otros idiomas. El cerebro de un niño esta en desarrollo, y en esa época puede absorber todos los sonidos, palabras, y estructuras de cualquier idioma.

A los cuatro años, el cerebro y la boca se han formado conexiones fuertes para los patrones del hablar. Son conexiones que tendremos por toda la vida, si se mantiene saludable el cerebro.

En la adolescencia los patrones del hablar se han vuelto tan arraigados que si aprendemos un segundo lenguaje, es más probable que hablaremos el segundo idioma con un acento. Además, es por esta edad que se Vuelve más difícil aprender otro idioma; se requiere muchas horas de estudio. Hasta si se puede ganar dominio sobre la gramática y el vocabulario del inglés a los 16 años, aun hablaras el idioma con un acento.

Acento abarca los sonidos, ritmos, y entonación de un idioma hablado por un grupo de gente. Puede ser confinado por un idioma, como el idioma estonio, o por región, como el Panhandle de Texas. Aunque todos hablamos con algún acento, normalmente no pensamos en tener un acento en nuestro primer idioma.

Los investigadores que estudian cómo responden los bebes al lenguaje han descubierto que a una cierta edad, los bebes prefieren el acento de su propio grupo. En otras palabras, un bebe jamaiquino demostraría una preferencia por el ingles jamaiquino sobre un acento de Minnesota, y un bebe de St. Louis preferiría el lenguaje arrastrado sobre un acento de Australia. Sabemos que los bebes reconocen la diferencia. ¿Y los adultos?

Cuando un adulto típico escucha a un acento, su cerebro tiene mas labor por hacer antes de que entienda el mensaje comunicado por el hablante. El cerebro adulto procesa a un acento como un escultor quitando poco a poco la superficie para entender el mensaje abajo. El procesar del acento ocurre en un nivel subconsciente, a menos que sea muy fuerte el acento.

Los acentos pueden venir con mucho equipaje en la forma de como los escuchadores perciben a alguien quien habla con un acento diferente. La gente quien habla con cierto acento puede ser vistos como más inteligente, sofisticado, o educado. La gente quien habla con otro acento puede ser vistos con más tendencias a ser no honesto. ¡Y nada de esto tiene que ver con la persona, sino solo acento!

While I have discussed before how as a listener, the only way to overcome any subconscious biases you may have is to increase your exposure to those accents or dialects that might be seen in a negative light, many wonder, what can a speaker do about her own accent?

Petra aprendió el inglés cuando ya era adulta. Habla inglés con acento. Tiene acento por los patrones de hablar que aprendió como niñita en la Hungría. Petra, quien trabaja en las oficinas corporativas de una compañía de químicos en los EEUU, quiere cambiar su acento.

Ella siempre tenía algo de aprensión sobre comunicar con su equipo y los vendedores de afuera, pero cuando avanzó de puesto en la compañía, su acento se volvió más y más de un problema. Petra sabe que es instruida, tiene experiencia, e industriosa, pero a veces se siente que sus interacciones con sus colegas y con los vendedores no son tan nítidas como pudieran ser, y es por su acento.

Ella ha tratado de usar apps en su celular, tratando de practicar diario. No funcionó. Ha tratado de copiar las voces en la tele. No funcionó tampoco. Al fin, Petra se dio cuenta de lo que faltaba: feedback profesional de un hablante nativo de inglés.

Petra fue a Recursos Humanos y pregunto del speech coaching. La directora de entrenamiento en su compañía le hizo una cita para ver a un speech coach. Petra eligió hacer el entrenamiento por la computadora, porque era más conveniente para ella.

Trabajando con el speech coach, Petra recibió mas que solo el feedback que necesitaba para mejorar su hablar. El coach le dio a Petra ejercicios especiales para practicar que fueron especializados para sus necesidades, basados en la ciencia, y recomendados por un profesional. A Petra les gustaron las sesiones, y aprendió algo nuevo cada semana.

Después de trabajar con el speech coach por tres meses, Petra todavía habla con acento. Pero, puede hablar el inglés mucho más claro que antes, y algunos de sus colegas han comentado en cómo se ha mejorado su hablar. Ella se siente más confianza en su posición, y sus sentimientos de aprehensión sobre comunicar con los colegas y vendedores se ha bajado significantemente.

Si usted o un miembro de su equipo le gustaría más información sobre los servicios de acento, contáctanos. Nos alegrara contarle más de nuestro programa. Si está listo para cambiar su acento usando un programa de speech coaching que funciona, haga nuestro screening en línea para empezar. La gente debería de escuchar sus ideas, no el acento.


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